Fixed Landline Telephone History of Communication Development in China (2)

Categories: Industrial News

Fixed Landline Telephone History

4. Foreign investors build Shanghai landline telephone

In 1882, the Great Northern Telegraph Company set up a magnet-type manual telephone exchange at No. 7 on the Bund, erected telegraph poles in the Shanghai Public Concession and the French Concession, and installed 25 telephones. The annual rental fee for telephones per household was 150 yuan. There is a public telephone. This was Shanghai’s first commercial telephone exchange six years after the invention of the telephone, and only five years later than the world’s first telephone company, the American Bell Telephone Company, which is now the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T).

At that time, there were 41 actual users, including 38 foreign banks and 3 Chinese commercial banks. By the end of the year, the number of users had increased to 338, and the rental fee for each household was 150 yuan per year. In the same year, British companies such as China Toyo Telephone also established telephone companies in Shanghai.

Huang Shiquan recorded in “Songnan Dream Video Recording”: “The method is to erect wooden poles along the way and tie two lead wires to them, which is no different from the telegraph. However, the mechanism is completely different. The method of transmission does not use letters to assemble it, but only The message must be communicated to the end of the line, just like talking in a room. According to the cloud, within twelve o’clock, it can be transmitted to the five continents of the earth.”

The significance of the installation of these local telephones is different from the point-to-one intercom telephones of the previous steamship merchants. These 25 places with telephones can communicate with each other, and the transfer is realized through the telephone exchange. There are many connections in front of each operator. board, when the caller makes a call, the corresponding socket will light up, and then the operator can pick up the phone and ask you where to call. If the phone number is within the range of his management, he will insert the line plug into the corresponding socket. jack, then the called party’s home phone starts to ring, and the two parties can talk.

Shenzhen EAST LINE are the OME landline telephone manufacturer.

5. The development of China’s telephone industry in the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China

In 1900, under the promotion of the Qing government, Liu Kunyi, the governor of Liangjiang and the minister of Nanyang, “due to the defense and martial law, the vast area of the province, the civil and military personnel were stationed far away, and when there was an incident, the business was spread, and the delay was carefully considered.” Set up a telephone and use a wire to convey messages, hoping to respond well.” He established the Jiangnan Electric Power Bureau in Rundli, Nanjing, and set up a telephone exchange (also known as the “Telephone Central Office”). He initially set up a 50-door magnet manual switchboard and installed 16 single machines, all of which were used by the official residence. .

In 1903, the Tianjin Telephone Bureau was established.

In 1904, the Beijing government-run telephone exchange was established.

In February 1907, the State Administration of Telecommunications of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications of the Qing government established the Shanghai Telephone Bureau in Xinquanli Street outside the East Gate of Shanghai South City based on the commercial telephone of 1902. It rented three private houses as office rooms, with a total of It had 19 employees and had 97 users when it opened, breaking the situation in which foreign companies had monopolized Shanghai’s telephone communications industry since the establishment of the foreign telephone company in 1882.

Telephones have limitations such as a limited transmission distance, which can only “reach a distance of sixty miles”, and “a person with many languages cannot understand many languages”, so there is a long way to go for improvement. Therefore, after the telephone entered China, it did not spread to all parts of the country as quickly as the telegraph did.

In 1889, Peng Mingbao, who was in charge of Anqing’s telegraph business in Anhui at that time, designed and manufactured my country’s first telephone, named “Microphone”, with a communication distance of up to 300 miles.

In 1929, a long-distance line was laid between Nanjing and Shanghai. A pair of lines passed through Zhenjiang, Wuxi, Suzhou, Kunshan and other places. The call was in one place and stopped in other places. Later, a pair of lines were added directly to Shanghai. To make a long-distance call, you must first dial the record number and register. There are two types: urgent and regular. Because there are too few lines, there is an unwritten rule: business people give way to military people, military people give way to air defense, and small officials give way to big officials. When Chiang Kai-shek calls, all people give way except air defense.

6. The development of telephone after the founding of the People’s Republic of China

In 1949, China’s telephone penetration rate was only 0.05%, and there were only 260,000 telephone users.

In 1970, Denmark first used the F-68 digital push button dialing telephone, replacing the rotary dial type.

In 1978, China’s telephone capacity was 3.59 million, users were 2.14 million, and the penetration rate was 0.38%, less than 1/10 of the world level.

In 1982, China’s first 10,000-door program-controlled telephone exchange, the Japanese F-150, was put into use in Fuzhou. This work began at the end of 1979. During the equipment selection stage, my country successively cooperated with 8 companies including Fujitsu, NEC, Ericsson, and Philips. Negotiated with manufacturers and conducted a short-term equipment selection inspection in Japan. The Fujian Provincial Post and Telecommunications Administration signed an introduction contract with Fujitsu on December 24, 1980. The local telephone equipment was shipped from Yokohama, Japan on January 30, 1982. It was installed on April 12 and officially opened at 0:00 on November 27.

In 1985, Shenzhen issued my country’s first set of phone cards, with a total of 3 cards and a face value of 87 yuan.

The initial installation fee for installing a local telephone in 1991 was 1,500 yuan.

In 1995, the initial installation fee for local telephone calls was 3,500 yuan.

In March 2003, the number of fixed-line users reached 225.626 million, and the number of mobile phone users reached 221.491 million. The number of mobile phone users is about to equal that of fixed-line users.

Shenzhen EAST LINE’s annual capacity of landline telephones is around 3 Million units for home, office, hotel, schools etc.

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