Fixed Landline Telephone History of Communication Development in China (1)

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Fixed Landline Telephone History in China

In China, the telegraph and the telephone appeared at about the same time. After the telegraph line was built, the telephone also entered China. In many cases, telephone lines and telegraph lines were shared, and the development trajectories of the two were almost parallel. They were not It took many years after the telegraph was introduced to China before more advanced telephones slowly appeared. The phone number in this issue refers to a landline phone, also known as a “landline”, not a mobile phone (cell phone).
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1. Invention of telephone

In 1861, a German teacher invented the original telephone, which used the principle of sound waves to communicate with each other over short distances, but it was not put into actual use.

There has always been controversy about the inventor of the telephone. Some say it was Antonio Meucci, another said it was Bell, and another said it was Elisha Gray. There are many such things. The most famous one is Newton and Leibniz’s theory of micro-organisms. In the story of points, the main controversy is Meucci and Bell.

In 1849, the 41-year-old Meucci accidentally discovered that wires could transmit some sounds during an electroshock treatment. Then he made a simple sound transmission system. In 1860, the 52-year-old Meucci demonstrated this system to the public and An introduction to the invention was published in an Italian-language newspaper in New York, when his rival Alexander Bell was only 13 years old. Because he was too poor to pay the patent maintenance fee, he sent the model and technical details to the Western Union Telegraph Company in the hope of commercial use, but nothing happened.

On February 14, 1876, Bell, who shared a laboratory with Meucci, applied for a telephone patent to the U.S. Patent Office, and the application was approved on March 3.

However, whether Bell independently invented the telephone, improved the sound transmission equipment, plagiarized Meucci, or used different principles, please stay calm. When science and technology develop to a certain level, the same creation and creativity It occurs in many places, which is very common.

Telegraph lines were originally used to transmit telephone signals, but the noise interference caused by such lines was very large, so people were not allowed to improve the communication lines. In 1883, a line using a second wire as a loop appeared, which greatly reduced the noise interference in telephone communications.


2. The origin of the name “telephone”

In 1796, Hughes proposed a method of using a microphone to relay voice messages. Although this method was not very practical, he gave this method of communication a name: Telephone, which is still used today.

The Chinese word “telephone” is a Chinese word created by Japan. In fact, there are many Chinese names translated in Japan. In addition to telephone, the most famous one is the philosophical term “metaphysics”. Telephone is the free translation of the English word “telephone”. The Chinese transliterated this English word and translated it as “telephone”.

In the early 20th century, a group of foreign students from Shaoxing in Japan jointly wrote a reply to their hometown, which introduced the modernization situation in Japan in detail. Lu Xun was also listed among them. When the letter mentioned “telephone”, he specifically explained: “With electrical appliances, To convey words, the Chinese translated it as “telephone”, which is not as good as “telephone”. Gradually, it was called telephone. For a period of time, the two terms “telephone” and “telephone” were commonly used. Later, “telephone” “Wind” slowly disappears.

3. Chinese people came into contact with telephones for the first time

In 1876 (the second year of Guangxu), Ningbo customs official Li Gui was ordered to go to the United States to participate in the “World’s Fair” held in Philadelphia. He saw a telephone that could transmit messages, and wrote it in his book “A New Record of Traveling Around the World”. In the book, Li Gui is the first Chinese to see a telephone for which historical data are available.

In this book, he also made detailed records of the U.S. Postal Service and suggested that the Qing Dynasty also open a Chinese postal service. His insights were praised by Li Hongzhang, and he was subsequently ordered to draft the “Translation and Drafting of the Postal Service’s Rules for Sending Letters”, which included ten The specifications, features, rates, etc. of several types of mail are specified in detail. When Kang Youwei was 22 years old, he read the newly published “New Records of Around the Earth”.

In 1877, the year after Bell invented the telephone, a Chinese was fortunate enough to use a telephone. This Chinese was named Guo Songtao, who was the first minister of the Qing Dynasty to Britain.

On October 16, 1877, Guo Songtao was invited to visit a power plant near London, England. During the visit, the owner specifically asked him to experience the telephone, which had recently been introduced to the United Kingdom from the United States. One end of the telephone was installed upstairs and the other end was installed downstairs. , Guo Songtao asked Zhang Deyi, the translator of the Chinese Embassy, to go downstairs to answer the call, while he made the call upstairs.

Guo: “Did you hear that?”

Zhang: “Yes.”

Guo: “Are you aware?”

Zhang: “Yes”

Guo: “Please count the numbers.”

Zhang: “One, two, three, four, five, six, seven”

This was the first time for Chinese people to use the telephone. Guo Songtao wrote down his experience of using the telephone in his diary: “There are many languages and there are many that cannot be understood, but this number is distinct.” He called it a “sound reporting machine”. Guo Songtao will What he saw along the way was recorded in his diary “Shi Xi Ji Cheng”, advocating that China should study and learn from the advanced technologies and systems of the West. After the book was sent to the Prime Minister’s Office, it was attacked and cursed by diehards. It was not made public until Guo Songtao’s death. issued.

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3. Magnet Telephone

Bell’s phone is a magnet phone. The so-called magnet phone is also called a hand-crank phone or a crank phone. There is a crank on the left side of the phone. Before using the phone, you need to crank it to charge the battery. The general working principle is: When the speaker picks up the phone and speaks into the microphone, the vibration of the vocal cords forms sound waves, which act on the microphone, causing the carbon particles in the metal box of the microphone to become loose and tight – the resistance becomes large and small – circuit The current is strong and weak. , the voice current is transmitted along the line to the receiver of the other party’s phone. The magnetism of the electromagnet in the receiver becomes stronger and weaker – the magnetic force on the thin iron sheet becomes stronger and smaller – causing the thin iron sheet to vibrate and emit sounds that are connected to the speaker. Same sound.